A healthy balance of these three fundamental elements of both engineering and ergonomics is vital for good cello playing. Too much, or too little, of any one of these elements can be a problem for our playing. Let’s look at them one by one.
Big, bulky muscles might look good in the mirror but they’re not very useful for musicians. We are high performance athletes ……. but of the small muscles. Our fingers have to be more like world-class decathlon athletes, dancers, gymnasts or acrobats rather than Olympic weight-lifters. We need endurance strength (the type of strength that allows us to withstand thousands of small repetitive movements) rather than the strength that would allow us to lift 100 kilos in one momentous effort. Big bulky muscles tend to make people stiff and “muscle-bound” whereas the strength we need to play the cello must be coupled with enormous flexibility as well.
This is not to say that we don’t all need to look after and exercise our large muscle groups (back, legs, shoulders etc.). Even though it is our hands that require the most strength-and-endurance training, our large muscle groups need to be fit and flexible in order to help the hands do their hard work. In fact, very often, musicians tend to neglect their general body fitness and strength. Almost certainly, one hour per day taken away from our practice to devote to general physical exercise will benefit our playing more than if we had just practiced for that extra hour.
The best way to develop strength in the hands is simply by practicing. Studies are often relentless and are thus usually good training material for strength/endurance. Normally our need for strength training is greater for the Left Hand than for the Right Hand. This is because what the Right Hand does at the cello is normally well within its strength capabilities for normal life. Nothing however in normal life prepares the left hand fingers for what they need to do at the cello. While we need to work hard to build up the Left Hand’s strength, for the Right Hand we need to do almost the contrary: working especially on delicacy, control, flexibility and sensitivity.
The Cossmann Double-Trill Exercises are like perfectly designed weight-lifting machines for the cellists left hand. For the right hand and arm it is usually the wrist and fingers that tend to get tired, especially in long fast spiccato passages across strings, so, obviously, string-crossing studies, played with a loud fast spiccato (with lots of finger and wrist movement) are good training material to develop strength.
We need to be careful in choosing how widely to space our fingers for our bowhold. When we spread out our fingers widely on the bow we gain leverage and power (strength), but at the risk of losing flexibility. When, by contrast, the fingers are closer together, we gain stability and flexibility but possibly lose some power and some control.
For the left hand the situation is quite different because we don’t need this leverage power. The more closely we keep the left hand fingers bunched up together, the more they support and reinforce each other. In fact, keeping the left hand compact (with the fingers bunched up closely together) not only gives the fingers of the left hand maximum playing strength but also maximum flexibility, maximum stability and minimum tension. The only reason to ever open out the left hand fingers (extensions) is to be able to reach more notes within the hand’s range (without shifting).
Playing the cello requires a constant juggling and balancing between the need for strength and the need for flexibility. While strength is produced by working the muscles, flexibility is produced by stretching them. Muscles that are just trained (worked) but never stretched just get tighter and tighter. Very often, female musicians have an excess of flexibility and a deficit in strength, whereas male musicians have exactly the opposite conditions. In both cases, the imbalance between strength and flexibility can cause repetitive strain-type injuries. So, in fact, it is the ladies who need to go and pump weights while the men need to do Yoga ! Unfortunately this seems to go against our inner natures: most men prefer a hard physical muscle-building workout to a Yoga session and vice versa for the ladies so nature seems to want us to do the opposite of what we really need!
HOW TO STRETCH
There are several important things to remember in order to stretch in the most beneficial, efficient way – and thus not hurt ourselves: these are the basic principles of Yoga.
stretch GENTLY (no forcing) ……… MAINTAIN each stretch …….. BREATHE as you hold the stretch
Stability is almost a direct consequence of a good balance between strength and flexibility. If our hands and fingers are both strong and flexible – and if the movements we make with them are reasonably ergonomic – then we will feel that our hands (and our playing) are stable, solid, reliable, easily controlled.
If, on the other hand, our hands and fingers are weak, stiff, muscle-bound etc and/or our movements are not ergonomic, then our feeling will be one of instability – of lurching from one position to the next, from one note to the next, of being close to an accident, of great effort to keep control of the hands.
Instability in buildings is seen: they wobble and fall. Instability in a cellists hands or fingers is not only seen but is also immediately heard. No building falls to the ground but we do have bad sound, bad intonation and a lack of control. If we don’t have a feeling of stability in our hands then it is very difficult to play well. It is as though we were trying to play while drunk or with a neurological disorder.
One immediate and easy way to assure a maximum of stability is simply to keep the hands compact. When the fingers are close together (i.e. when the hand is compact) we have great stability and very low tension. This lack of tension and strain usually means that the hand, in this compact position, is also at its most flexible. Keeping both hands in this compact position as much as possible is a very useful fundamental concept for good, sustainable, relaxed, ergonomic string playing.