Music is an extremely powerful means of communication, but it acts at a distance. While we do hope to “touch” our listeners, “move” them, “grip” them, and “hold” their attention, we have to do all this indirectly, via our instrument. “Touch” has been called “the mother of all the senses” and bowed string instruments are probably the most sensually tactile of all the musical instruments. Both hands have a very expressive tactile relationship with the instrument: the right hand indirectly via the bow, and the left hand through its direct physical contact between the fingertips and the strings. On this page we will look in more detail at this contact between the left-hand fingers and the cello’s strings and fingerboard. In the Neck Region the left-hand is also in contact with the cello via the thumb under the cello’s neck. This subject is looked at here.
There is a huge variety in the types of left-hand finger contact that we use. Not only do we pluck and hammer the strings in a rhythmic, articulate way but also – and here is the sensual aspect – we stroke and caress them during both our finger placements and our sliding shifts up and down them. All this hammering, plucking, stroking and sliding constitutes an enormous palette of different tactile effects, which translate into different musical colours and expressive devices. The incessant modulation between hammering and sliding finger contacts is perhaps comparable to the use of consonants and vowels in language.
We can look at several variables concerning our finger-string/fingerboard contact (click on the highlighted links to open the dedicated pages):
1: HOW (AND WHEN) WE BRING THE FINGERS TO THE STRING:
2: THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FINGER/STRING CONTACT:
3: THE FRICTION FACTOR
Good playing requires enormous tactile sensitivity from both the lefthand and the bowhand. While the lefthand fingers do indeed spend alot of their playing-time percussively articulating the strings they also spend a huge amount of time (all of our shifting time for example) sliding up and down the strings, for which the tactile sensation of the friction of our fingerpads against the strings and fingerboard is an absolutely vital control mechanism. Disturbances to the degree of friction between the fingers and the strings/fingerboard can cause us all sorts of problems: not just with our sliding position changes (glissandi), but also with our vibrato and our intonation (fine tuning).
Frictional disruptions can be caused by disturbances to any one of the three elements involved: the fingerpads, the strings, and the fingerboard.
3:1 FRICTION RESISTANCE OF THE FINGERBOARD AND STRINGS
Fingerboards need to be absolutely and uniformly smooth. If our fingerboard (and/or strings) are not uniformly resistant to the friction of the sliding fingers on the string, then we will have problems with our tactile control. But it is not enough that the friction factor is uniform all over the fingerboard, it also needs to be “just right”: not too slippery but not too resistant either. Imagine a fingerboard/strings with oil, talc, or soap on them: this would be too slippery. In the opposite (frictional) direction, imagine playing on a rough fingerboard with a surface like coarse sandpaper: this would be be too resistant to the sliding movements of the fingers. The normal cause of excessive “drag” created by a fingerboard problem however is not a problem of poor workmanship but rather a problem of accumulated sticky filth!
Over time, fingerboards (and strings) – like carpets, clothes and any exposed surfaces – tend to accumulate all the various dusts and dirt to which they are exposed. If we don’t clean both strings and fingerboard periodically with alcohol (on a make-up-removal cotton pad, a cloth, tissue etc), then we can find our finger contact with the cello seriously disturbed by this sticky mess. It is astounding the amount of black-brown goo that comes off after a few months – especially after hot weather – and it is equally astounding how much our left-hand finger contact is improved after this cleaning operation. We do however need to be careful not to get alcohol on any part of the cello’s body except the fingerboard: alcohol can damage the varnish unless removed immediately.
For a cello that spends its entire life in a case except for when being played, the main vector for this accumulation of stickiness is our fingers. So if we don’t want our fingerboard to become an archeological record of our past activities then we might as well wash our hands after DIY activities, car repairs, finger snacks etc! Even with clean hands, the normal sweating and shedding of old skin cells is enough to cause a buildup of sticky detritus that will require periodic removal from the cello.
Certain types of strings (Jarga ?) have a rough winding on them which creates additional drag. Fortunately, because this sensation of frictional resistance is uniform all the way up the string, this is something that we can quickly get used to.
3:2 FRICTION RESISTANCE OF THE FINGERPADS
Sometimes it is the actual fingertips, rather than the fingerboard or the strings, that are responsable for disturbing variations in left-hand slipperiness. Playing the cello after a long bath or after washing dishes is an interesting tactile experience, as we have all no doubt at some time experienced. The softness of the waterlogged skin suddenly makes our fingertips drag on the string so much that we can’t shift comfortably or accurately until the fingers have dried out again. Fortunately this drying process doesn’t usually take long. Warming-up the hand in hot water for anything more than a few minutes is only a good idea if we have a waterproof glove to avoid this problem.