Watching different fine cellists play, we might be surprised to see that there are such an extraordinary variety of ways to hold the bow and still play very well ……. and sometimes it even seems that the very best cellists have the strangest bowholds (Yo Yo Ma for example)! We can’t fail also to observe that these fine cellists don’t normally have only “one” bowhold but rather that they will often vary their bowhold, according to the musical and technical demands of the passages being played. In fact, even just going from one end of the bow to the other can produce a significant change in bowhold.
When playing passages that are simultaneously in the upper half of the bow and on the string (with no part of the trajectory in the air), we can basically use any old bowhold because the weight of the bow is supported by the string because in this situation our hand is really only guiding the bow and applying pressure to it rather than actually “holding” it. In contrast to this, there are two situations in which we definitely need a good bowhold:
- when playing at the frog, and
- when the bow is in the air.
In both of these two situations we need that good bowhold because here we have to control (hold) the entire weight of the bow and also manage the complex leverage effect (which is actually much more demanding than simply carrying the weight of the bow – see at the bottom of the page).
To summarize: as with so many aspects of cello playing (and life itself!) we want maximum flexibility, without however losing strength or control. Possibly the best way to find the best mix of these contradictory elements is through “play” in it’s literal infantile sense: in other words, simply “fooling around”, experimenting with the bow and the many different ways to hold it in different musical contexts. The most useful “play” will be at the frog, with many placements from the air (see
For me personally, the 3 most helpful ideas that I have come across are:
1. FINGERS CLOSE TOGETHER
With the fingers closer together, the hand is freed of a lot of tension and becomes much more flexible. With the fingers spread out, the hand becomes more like a stiff claw than a paint-brush. Certainly, there are musical passages that need the powerful rigid claw, but this is not the most helpful bowhold to have as a starting point. If we find that we are lacking control when playing at the frog, this might indicate that we need to open the fingers out, which gives us a stronger, more powerful (stable) grip
2. BENT THUMB
Having the last joint of the thumb bent helps enormously. The bend acts as a shock-absorber, giving flexibility. It takes time for the thumb to get used to being jammed permanently into the frog of the bow and it will certainly develop a thick tough skin callous on the area of contact. Some cellists put medical-rubber tube over that part of the bow to avoid this problem (and also to give a more secure contact.)
3. FIRST FINGER ROLE ??
If we hook the first finger round the stick of the bow then we can easily tend to “the claw” posture (not recommended). It may be preferable – especially in legato passages – to use the first finger principally as a “modulator of pressure” rather than than as an element that actually “holds” the bow. When the bow is in the air however, the first finger does need to contribute to the actual “holding” of the bow.
THE LEVERAGE EFFECT AND THE BOWHOLD
Let’s start by finding the centre of gravity of the bow. When the bow is perfectly balanced on a finger inserted between the hair and the stick, that finger is at the bows “balance point, or in other words, at its centre of gravity. Because the frog is the heaviest part of the bow, the bows centre of gravity is much closer to the frog than to the middle of the bow.
If we were to hold our bow exactly at this balance point, the job of our bowhold would be vastly simpler, especially when the bow is in the air. This is because, when holding it at the center of gravity, we only need to control the bow’s weight without having to manage any of the destabilising forces of “leverage” that are created by holding the bow at the frog (relatively far from its balance point). Just try it, to see how light the bow feels when we hold it at its balance point.
These forces of leverage are proportional (exponentially?) to the distance away from the centre of gravity at which we hold the bow. When chopping with an axe or hitting with a hammer, we use the same principle of holding them far from their center of gravity in order to multiply our power. For the bow, this leverage power can also be very useful, especially in high-intensity Romantic and 20th Century music, but it does (of course) have its down side. It not only requires much greater muscular effort but also greatly increases the risks, multiplying the difficulties of control – especially of fine control.It’s much easier to hit the nail cleanly on its head when we hold the hammer closer to its center of gravity ……… but we have much less force in our hit!
We can find a beautiful analogy for this phenomenon in the world of economics and finance, where the term “leverage” refers to the possibility to make huge amounts of money from small initial outlays. Yes, the power is there and some people get very rich very fast, but the risks are enormous and most just get wiped out at the first sneeze. Leverage (great power with only small efforts) is not only a double-edged sword but is also a phenomenon which modern society has developed to an extraordinary degree. Look at weapons: in ancient history they had rocks and catapults, then we invented guns, then simple explosives, and now with the click of a button (or a mouse) we can blow up the whole world. Look also at transport: first there was walking, then the wheel, then bicycles, then cars, and now with a tiny pressure on a pedal or lever we can get up to mind-bending speeds in the space of a few seconds. That is “leverage”.
LEVERAGE AS A ROMANTIC PHENOMENON
In fact, the presence or not of this “leverage” effect is the source of one of the major differences between Pre-Romantic (without leverage) and Post-Romantic (with great leverage) bowing. The Tourte bow (invented around 1790) is a “leveraged” bow, with the bowhold displaced much further away from the centre of gravity than the Baroque bow. What’s more, the spike, which allowed the cello to be held more horizontally, was invented around 1830, not long after the Tourte bow. The spike is also an “increased leverage” tool because it allows us to hold the cello more horizontally. This is significant because the more horizontal the cello’s position is, the greater the effect gravity will have on the bow, and thus the greater is the effect of leverage. ….. and thus the more complicated becomes the art of holding and controlling the bow!
The simple fact of moving our bowhold “up” the bow (away from the frog = in the direction of the balance point) gives our playing an immediate lightness and “Baroque touch” because it removes the leverage effect. If we simultaneously place the cello more vertically and sit forward on our chair, the leverage effect is even more diminished (see Baroque Style and Interpretation and Classical Period: Style and Interpretation)