Major Third Extensions On The Cello: Lighten the Load
Extensions on the cello share certain characteristics with practice in general: both are an unavoidable (and potentially irritating) constant in our cellistic lives. In the same way that we try to make our practice as interesting and enjoyable as possible, there are many ways by which the small-handed cellist can lighten the load of our extensions:
- maintain them for as little time as possible
- avoid them: by shifting more (rather than extending), and by using thumbposition
- practice them regularly
- play on a smaller cello
- release the thumb
We will now look at each of these in more detail.
1: MAINTAIN EXTENSIONS FOR AS LITTLE TIME AS POSSIBLE
Even in passages that seem to be entirely and unavoidably in extended position, we have several ways by which we can reduce the amount of time that we are actually playing in the extended position
1A: LAST-MINUTE OUTREACH AND “AS-SOON-AS-POSSIBLE” RELAXATION
Rather than maintaining the hand in extended position, we can often make the extension “at the last minute” – reaching out for the extended notes only when we need them, and then immediately relaxing back into non-extended position as soon as we no longer need the extended finger. Sometimes we have plenty of time to reach out for our extension (Dvorak example) but at other times we might have very little time and may prefer to change rapidly between extended and non-extended position, refingering the passage so that we only are in extended position when it is absolutely necessary (as in the following Telemann and Sibelius examples). In these “refingered” options we need to use our hand’s speed and agility to make up for its lack of size, strength, and reach.
While the large-handed cellist might simply prefer to stay in extended position throughout, the small-handed cellist might always favour the “last-minute option” or might alternatively decide on a mix of both according to the speed of the passage. In the following example we will have to decide which is “better”: staying permanently in extended position (lower fingering option), or doing a somewhat more complicated refingering involving both closed and extended positions and requiring lightning-fast extensions but only when strictly necessary (upper fingering option). This choice might change in the last few bars, in which the frequency of the extensions is doubled making it perhaps more simple to just stay in the extended position rather than maniacally opening and closing the hand.
If we can avoid shifting in the extended position then there is every chance that our ears, hand and listeners will all be much happier. In the following doublestopped arpeggio exercise we shouldn’t – and definitely don’t need to – shift in the extended position because we can relax our hand after the extension on the first two notes, and then reach out at the last moment for the extension to the last note (of each “cell”). We can transpose the basic “cell” all over the fingerboard:
Here below is a link to a page of different repertoire excerpts for which the small-handed cellist might prefer to use fingerings that stay mainly in the comfortable “close” position, only reaching for the extensions at the last moment:
1B: PREPARED (ANTICIPATORY) OUTREACH
Often we can choose between doing our extension either in the “violin posture” or in the “bass hand posture” (see Different Extended Hand Postures). This choice of posture will determine which finger will be the extended, strained one, and which will be the more relaxed comfortable one. In the “bass” posture it is the first finger that is strained and extended, while the higher fingers are relaxed. In the “violin” posture it is the exact reverse: the first finger is comfortable while the top fingers are strained/extended. We can use this choice to make sure that it is the longest, most expressive notes that are the ones in the most relaxed, non-extended posture, and only the shorter, less important “passing notes” that suffer the extension. For example, in the excerpt shown here below, it will suit the small-handed cellist to start each phrase in the” bass posture” so that we are able to vibrate beautifully the fourth finger on those longer, most expressive notes (in the green enclosures). The discomfort of the first finger will be less noticeable, less prejudicial to the phrase, because it is only used for the shorter, passing notes.
This is somewhat unnatural because it requires conscious overriding of the importance of our starting note. Rather than preparing (thinking about) the first note before we start playing we instead need to think ahead and prepare mainly the second note, because that is the important one. This is why we call this little trick “prepared outreach”. It is the exact opposite of the “last-minute outreach” that was our first technique to avoid maintaining extensions (see above).
1C: ROCK OR ROLL?
When a middle finger comes between the first and top fingers, we can “roll” the hand between these two extremities (with the middle finger as the central axis) rather than maintaining a tense, rigid (rock-like) immobile extension. This is especially useful in fast passages and is equally useful in all the fingerboard regions:
2: AVOID EXTENSIONS BY SHIFTING MORE AND BY USING THUMBPOSITION:
Here, below, is a brief summary of fingering “tricks” designed to avoid extensions through the use of shifting and thumbposition, but the full discussion of these cases (as well as practice material) can be found on the dedicated page “Fingering to Avoid Extensions“.
2.1 SHIFT MORE
In concert repertoire, we can often reduce the number of extensions by changing the fingering in such a way that we shift more, rather than extend. For a small hand this facilitates enormously a warm, relaxed, continuous vibrato:
In the following example, the benefit of the increased hand relaxation (achieved by more shifting and fewer extensions) is more relevant to our ease of fast shifting and intonation security rather than to the vibrato:
2.2 DO A SEMITONE SHIFT INSTEAD OF AN EXTENSION
Sometimes, without modifying the fingering at all, we can do a semitone shift (indicated in the following examples by the arrows) instead of reaching out for the extension. This allows us to do two very beautifully expressive things:
- connect the interval with a glissando
- maintain a constant vibrato thanks to the compactness of the non-extended hand
Even though this idea is especially useful in slower, legato, lyrical music it can also be valid in faster passages. In the following example, as with the above examples, our written fingering (finger numbers) doesn’t indicate that we are doing anything different to the traditional extensions. Here, the shifts-instead-of-extensions are indicated by red rectangles:
2.3 THE THUMB AS AN EXTENSION ELIMINATOR
One of the main reasons why we might use thumbposition in the lower fingerboard regions is to avoid extensions. In every fingerboard region, the thumb/second finger major third spacing is, for most hands, a much less strained position than the same interval fingered between the first and top fingers.
Likewise, in every fingerboard region, the thumb/top finger perfect fourth is a much less strained way of fingering this interval than doing the double-extension. The use of the thumb to avoid simple extensions is looked at in detail on the “Fingering to Avoid Extensions” page while on the “Thumbposition in the Neck Region” page can be found many examples in which we can use the thumb to avoid double-extensions.
3: PRACTICE THEM REGULARLY
We will never be able to avoid extensions entirely. There are so many passages that cannot be refingered, that if we don’t practice them diligently, the hand will lose the strength and flexibility that is so necessary to make them reasonably comfortable, and they will only become harder and harder.
For basic general extension exercises in all of the fingerboard regions click on the following link:
For exercises, studies and repertoire excerpts specific to each of the three fingerboard regions, click on the following link:
4: PLAY ON A SMALLER CELLO
7/8 size cellos, also called “ladies cellos”, are a wonderful option for small-handed cellists because normally the string length is a few centimetres shorter than on a full-size instrument (67cm as against 69cm). Those few centimetres make a huge difference to left-hand comfort and ease, especially in extensions (see Hand/Cello Size). But we must be careful to actually measure the length of the stopped string (from the peg box to the bridge) and not just assume that it will be shorter because some 7/8 cellos actually have a full-size string length. In fact, the size of the cellos’ body is not the problem – only the string length affects our left-hand comfort. Shortening the string length on an acoustic cello requires moving the bridge up and the nut (at the peg-box) down by equal distances so as not to displace “4th position” relative to the end of the neck. This can change the acoustic properties (sound) of the instrument. On electric cellos however, the string length can be altered with minimal acoustic effect (only the effect of lowering the string tension). By playing on a cello with a sufficiently shortened string length even the smallest hand can start to feel like Rostropovitch’s bear paw. The increase in comfort is extraordinary when the notes all lie under the fingers effortlessly!!!!
5: RELEASE THE THUMB
We have spoken about the “Tyranny of the Thumb” with respect to Shifting and Vibrato, where maintaining permanent thumb contact with the cello can cause rigidity and tension. The same phenomenon occurs also with extensions – and this, in all the fingerboard regions. Excessive tension in the hand during an extension can often be reduced by releasing the thumb from its contact with the cello. Large-handed cellists usually have less need for this, but for small-handed cellists, thumb release in extensions may often be essential, especially when using the “Double-Bass Position“.