FOR THE CURIOUS CELLIST

Thumb Position in the Neck Region

Placing the thumb up on the fingerboard changes our hand’s posture and alignment greatly. These changes are particularly disadvantageous in the Neck Region because of the larger distances between the notes (compared to in the higher registers). Those larger distances create a lot of extra tension for the fingers and hand which is why thumbposition in the Neck Region is normally quite unergonomic, strained and uncomfortable. In the neck region, vibrato, expressive playing and extensions all become much more difficult as soon as we put the thumb up on the fingerboard. This is why we almost never use the thumbposition to finger passages with a singing, lyrical, melodic character in the Neck Region.

There are however two very important exceptions to this general rule of “thumbposition + neck region = tension”:

  • the perfect fourth interval between the thumb and third finger, and
  • the major third interval between the thumb and second finger.

Playing either of these intervals (on the same string or across strings) with the thumb and the corresponding finger is normally much less tense than playing them with the 1-4 extended (or double-extended) position. Using the thumb in the Neck Region for these intervals avoids the need for the 1-4 extended position and therefore actually allows our hand to be more relaxed than the standard 1X4 fingerings, and to be able to do a nice loose vibrato. And the smaller our hand is, the greater the reduction in tension level will be by using the thumb instead of the 1-4 extension. Compare the following two repertoire passages both of which contain some major-third hand stretches. They are presented with two fingering choices: firstly with a “standard” fingering and then with a fingering using the thumb:

bach and brahms thumb or not

For octaves in the Neck Region, the advantages of using the thumb are even clearer as here our use of the thumb avoids the perfect fourth 1XX4 double extension and not just the simple major third 1X4 extension. For the small-handed cellist, passages that move around the Neck Region in octaves will almost always be easier with the use of the thumb than with the 1XX4 double extension.

brahms double I

Exactly the same advantages apply to our standard artificial harmonics (in which we also require the same perfect fourth spacing between our bottom and top fingers).

Unlike octaves and major thirds however, other simple intervals between the fingers – especially 1-3 thirds and 2-3 tones – can become quite uncomfortable (if not impossible) in thumb position in the Neck Region. This is why we can consider the use of the thumb in the Neck Region as only being for “special occasions”, such as:

  • to play octaves, artificial harmonics and some double-stopped passages in thirds
  • to help us out in faster passages (these don’t normally need vibrato) in which the use of the thumb is a way to avoid awkward shifts and/or string-crossings
  • to avoid other uncomfortable stretches (especially in double-stops).

It is quite surprising just how often these “special occasions” arrive. Even in the Classical Symphonic repertoire, the use of the thumb in the Neck Region – although not at all authentic (see History Of Thumb Position) – can often make a fast awkward passage suddenly much easier, as in the following example.

thumbneckbeetsymph1

Sometimes we can even use the thumb to solve an awkward Neck Position passage ……. but not in the original low Neck Position where the finger spacings are so uncomfortably large for most hands. By moving the passage onto the next lower string(s) we bring it one fifth higher up the fingerboard, thus bringing it into a zone where the distances between the fingers are much less, thus making our use of the thumbposition much more comfortable.

thumbpos 1pos int instead athletics neck new

Here, the use of the thumb eliminates, instantaneously and simultaneously, the need for extensions, position changes, and awkward fast jumps across three strings for the bow.

Sometimes however we may not want (or be able) to play the passage on the lower strings in a position one fifth higher. In these cases, to avoid the very uncomfortably strained wholetone interval between first and second fingers in the lowest fingerboard positions we may want to use the third finger on the major third interval above the thumb. To avoid hand tension, the small-handed cellist might even use some very non-standard, bizarre fingerings. The following excerpt is from the “Allegro” second movement of Telemann’s Fantasia for Unaccompanied Violin Nº 1:

telemann first thumbpos new

THE PROBLEM OF THUMB PLACEMENT AND REMOVAL

Apart from the discomfort of the large finger spacings, one of the main difficulties of using the thumb in the Neck Region comes from the radical posture change that the hand and wrist undergo when we place the thumb on (or remove it off) the fingerboard in this region. The obligatory posture change that results from placing the thumb up on the fingerboard is much greater (and therefore more disruptive) in the Neck Region than in the higher fingerboard regions. And because the posture change is so radical, we also need more time to comfortably get our thumb up onto the fingerboard in the Neck Region than we do in the higher regions. For this reason, if we can place our thumb up on the fingerboard before the passage starts, then we eliminate a rather large problem and our comfort and security will normally be greatly enhanced:

mendelssohn italian prep

At other times however we do not have the luxury of being able to prepare our thumb during a silence, and have no choice but to place it on the fingerboard while we are playing. This is a bit like trying to get dressed while walking – it makes it all much more complex. In these situations, the importance of thinking ahead and consciously releasing the thumb from its contact behind the cello neck as early as possible cannot be overestimated. This will often be the key to our successful use of the thumb in the Neck Region.

bach gigue VI

In the above excerpt, we are lucky in that our thumb can be brought up at a moment when the hand is one steady “position” (meaning that we are not doing a shift ). The following link opens study material (exercises) for working on this skill.

Thumb Placement On The Fingerboard In Neck Region In One Hand Position (No Shifts): EXERCISES

Sometimes however we need to bring our thumb up while the hand is shifting (almost always to the thumb).

brahms snta II

This complicates matters significantly and constitutes the next level of difficulty. Once again, consciously placing the thumb up on the fingerboard as early as possible (even before the shift starts) will help make this potentially tricky task feel natural and comfortable. The following link opens study material (exercises) for working on this specific skill:

Thumb Placement On The Fingerboard In Neck Region During Shifts: EXERCISES

BACH AND THE NECK-POSITION THUMB

Bach never took his cello writing into the Thumb Region. In fact, Bach and his cellists were not aware of the possibilities of Thumb Position anywhere on the fingerboard. So how then could cellists of his time have played this passage from the Prelude of his Third Suite? (see Thumb History and Bach and the Thumb for the answer). This passage is a very good example of the utility of the thumb in the Neck Region as a means to avoiding difficult (or impossible) extensions:

bach P3 thumb pos in neck

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The following link opens up a large compilation of repertoire excerpts in which the use of Thumbposition in the Neck Region is either an absolute necessity or, at a minimum, a definite fingering possibility.

Thumb Position In The Neck Region: REPERTOIRE EXCERPTS